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He is also the developer of Assessing Behavior in Conflict, a negotiation-style assessment instrument. Lewicki , Alexander Hiam.
Mastering Business Negotiation is a handy resource for any leader or manager who needs practical strategies and ideas when conducting business negotiations. Grounded in solid research, the authors - experts in the field of business negotiation - reduce the huge volume of available information into an accessible handbook for busy executives who need to prepare for everyday negotiations as well as for more demanding and complex negotiation situations. Mastering Business Negotiation offers down-to-earth advice for learning to play the negotiation game and shows how to: Understand the game so you can better control what happens Predict the sequence of negotiation activities and move from disagreement toward agreement Identify the strategies and tactics of other players in the game.
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Choose Store. About this title Audio Format. Unabridged Version. Over time, consistently employing some strategies and not employing others leads us to use these preferences as a first response in almost any conflict or negotiation situation. These preferences lead us to develop distinct styles with which we approach many situations. The stronger your preference is for a particular conflict management strategy style , the more often you will choose it as a negotiation approach.
And the more biased you become in seeing it as an advantageous strategy, the more likely you will be to see that strategy style as appropriate in situations where an objective analysis would say it was less appropriate. Thus, if you normally respond to conflict and negotiation situations in a competitive manner, you are more likely to see the competitive strategy as widely appropriate—even when it may not be.
Similarly, the less likely you are to avoid conflict, the more likely it is that you will not choose the avoiding strategy—even when it may be the most appropriate thing to do. Your preferences for a particular strategy are also influenced by your commitment to certain basic values and principles. These may be harder in some ways to define than your goals or priorities. What will be the effect of such a combination? For example, two competitive parties might have more conflict in their negotiation than a competitive party negotiating with a party that usually yields. While it would be too complex to explore all the possible interactions between each of your five possible styles and the styles of the other in detail, we have summarized the possible combinations in Table 2.
Some of the cells on the left side are blank because the information is contained in the matching cell on the right side. How you feel about the other party and what you want to have happen in that relationship in the future will drive your strategy. How well do you like each other? How much do you communicate? How much do you need to work with the other in the future because you are dependent on what he can do for you? How much do you trust him? Your level of trust with the other party will be based on your experience with him and the history and results of other negotiations he has conducted with you or with other parties in the past.
Some people we have taught in negotiation seminars have argued that it is possible to adopt no strategy: you refuse to make an explicit strategic choice, and let the chips fall to determine what you will do next. This allows you maximum flexibility to adjust your approach based on what your opponent does first, or as the proceedings change.
Competitor will dominate, or avoider will escape. Avoider attempts to minimize interaction, while competitor tries to engage.
Collaborator shows strong concern for both issues and the relationship, while avoider tries to escape. Avoider may give up. Collaborating Compromising Compromiser shows some concern for both issues and relationship; avoider tries to escape. Compromiser may give up, or avoider may engage. Accommodator shows strong concern for the avoider, particularly the relationship; avoider attempts to minimize interaction.
Competing AM Accommodating Both parties avoid pursuing their goals on the issues and do not take any action to endanger the relationship. Competitor usually wins, and both parties become competitive. Compromiser shows some concern, while collaborator shows strong concern on both substance and relationship. Good compromise likely at a minimum. Both parties pursue their goals on the issues in a limited way and attempt to do no harm to the relationship.
Source: From R. Lewicki, A. Hiam, and K. Copyright , Alexander Hiam and Roy Lewicki. Reproduced by permission. Collaborator shows strong concern for both issues and relationship, while competitor only pursues issues. Conflict and mistrust are likely. You get a chance to find out how your opponent wants to negotiate first, which may tell you a lot about your opponent. It also keeps you from making a commitment to a strategy that may not work or get completed, for example, to be accommodative while the other is being competitive.
We do not think this is a good choice. Although it may give you some negotiating leeway, it could also put you in a precarious position if you have not planned well. The result will be that the opposition gains an advantage over you before you realize what is going on. If you know that you care about the relationship, or the outcome, or both or neither , select a strategy and begin to plan around it. If you are proactive about strategy choice, you are much more likely to get what you want than if you wait for the other to initiate action.
As we have pointed out, you can always adapt your strategy later as necessary. Once you decide which strategy is best for you, it is time to take all the information you have gathered and proceed to implement that strategy. In the following chapters, we discuss in depth the implementation of the five most important negotiation games that we set out in this chapter. Our advice can be summed up in one simple phrase: assess to choose the best approach before you start negotiating. Notes: 1. Savage, J. Blair, and R. Thomas and R. We will argue several things in this chapter.
First, negotiation can be viewed as a game: it has a relatively predictable set of rules and processes, which lead to relatively predictable outcomes. Second, negotiation has some predictable stages, and important activities need to take place in each of these stages. Third, negotiation can take place with one or more parties, and it becomes increasingly complex as additional parties are added.
Fourth, it is critical for negotiators to determine their goals and priorities before entering a negotiation, and we discuss this process in depth. Negotiation Is a Game In Chapter One, we observed that it can be helpful to think of negotiation as a game. We want to explore that analogy. As in any game, your negotiating games have both written and unwritten rules. In some negotiations, many of these rules are clear, written down, and explicit. For example, if you are negotiating with a government agency, government rules and regulations are likely to constrain what can and cannot be negotiated.
In contrast, if you are negotiating for a rug in a Middle Eastern bazaar, you can be sure than almost anything goes.
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Laws and regulations provide an explicit set of foundational rules to negotiate 40 c For example, you may be somewhat circumspect in what information you choose to share, but you cannot openly lie and engage in clear deception and fraud, for this crosses the legal line. Nor can you, for example, talk about how to fix prices with your competitors, because there is a law against price fixing. These are clear boundaries. But in the rug bazaar, you can probably be pretty sure that a fair amount of deception occurs in both subtle and not-sosubtle ways.
For example, there is almost always a trust dynamic at work in negotiations. If you can come across as trustworthy and straightforward, as opposed to devious and untrustworthy, people will give you the benefit of the doubt more of the time.
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They will be less likely to doubt your word or suspect your facts. They will close deals with you more readily. But to be viewed as a principled negotiator, one who is reasonably trustworthy, you need to avoid unexpected and apparently unreasonable changes in your position.
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You also need to be very careful about revisiting earlier concessions. In general, there is an unwritten rule against taking back an earlier concession, and you should consider it only if the other party has broken some unwritten rules first. These examples of unwritten rules highlight the subtle nature of the negotiation game.
Negotiation Stages and Phases There are a number of ways to represent the different stages or phases of a negotiation.
Preparation Stage The preparation stage, the first stage of negotiation, is the time to gather information and do planning and goal setting. Gather Infor mation The first step of negotiation is the process of gathering information. You need to decide what kind of information you need, but it should be of two forms: c Later in this chapter, we focus on how you can gather this information. There are two essential skills to great information gathering: the ability to ask probing questions and the ability to listen intently.
Asking informative, probing questions usually requires being able to ask open questions. We need to try to map out the way we want the negotiation to proceed, and we need to spend time determining what we want to achieve. In this chapter, we look at the planning process and the critical steps to take in this phase, such as identifying interests and planning the agenda for the upcoming discussions.
We have more to say about negotiation planning in the next chapter.