Guide Research in Finance, Volume 18

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Volume 11 4 Published. Volume 12 1 Published. Volume 12 2 Published. Volume 12 3 Published. Volume 12 4 Published. Volume 12 5 Published. Volume 13 1 Published. Volume 13 2 Published. Volume 13 3 Published. Volume 13 4 Published. Volume 13 5 Published.

Accounting Education: An International Journal

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Volume 16 6 Published. Also, the husband's sex role attitude may be an important variable.

Finance Research Letters

When the husband is more traditional he will be more likely to retain influence, but when he is more modem the couple's pattern of influence will be more joint. The choice of institution for checking and savings accounts is a one-time decision, analogous to brand choice. Since these services are comparable across institutions, this choice does not involve particularly large consequences. Foxman and Bums propose that overloaded spouses may be more involved in major decisions e. Based on this, if the wife is overloaded, she may leave the decision about choice of institution to the husband.

When she is not facing any role overload, she may have more relative influence. The following conceptual hypotheses are proposed:. It will be more likely for husbands when the latter have more modem sex role attitudes and higher household incomes.

Use of visualization tools to improve financial knowledge: An experimental approach

Husbands will have more relative influence when they have higher incomes or have more traditional sex role attitudes. A family can be expected to own joint investments provided it has surplus household income. Turning to decisions about when to invest, the type of investment, and how much to invest, the extent of relative influence of each spouse may be driven by different factors. The traditional husband may dominate in these decisions, which have typically been the responsibility of the husband, or because he happens to earn a major part of the family income. For sex-role modern couples, the detailed decisions may be made jointly.

The wife may not want much involvement, perhaps because she is preoccupied with the demands of child-raising. But life-cycle aspects must also be considered. There is likely to be role specialization as couples move into-later years of the family life cycle FLC. For the husband, his relative influence will be greater when his sex role attitude is more traditional, and also when he has higher individual income. Credit card ownership and usage has been studied from economic and behavioral perspectives. Previous research includes relating demand to finance charges Garcia , attitudes towards credit Awh and Waters , and impact on spending Feinberg ; Hirschman In comparing credit card owners to non-owners, the former are more likely to be older and have higher levels of income, education, and socioeconomic status Kinsey , Mandell An early study found that men were more likely to own travel and entertainment cards e.

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Hirschman proposed that credit card ownership may be partially explained by traditional sex role attitudes. She attributed differences by sex to the traditional family roles of the man as "provider" and the woman as homemaker and "purchasing agent. This paper examines the extent to which wives and husbands own credit cards in their own names.

The factors relating to individual ownership may differ from those affecting joint ownership. Further, the distinction needs to be made between major credit cards and retail store cards.

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Marketers of major credit cards require substantial incomes, while the income standards used by retailers are not as strict. For wives, individual ownership of major credit cards can be expected to depend on their sex role attitudes and their own incomes, in addition to family income. For husbands, we would expect sex role moderns to be more likely to have their own retail cards. Based on this, the following conceptual hypotheses are proposed:. Turning to husbands, individual ownership of major credit cards will be more likely when they have more modern sex role attitudes and higher household incomes.

For husbands, individual ownership of retail credit cards will be more likely for sex role moderns. The data used in this study were obtained through a mail survey conducted in a medium-sized northeastern city. To obtain participants, a judgement sample of civic organizations and churches was contacted. These organizations were asked to provide the names of couples where at least one member of the couple might be between the ages of 25 and Approximately 30 percent of the contacted organizations agreed to cooperate. The couples were asked if they would be willing to participate in a study of financial decision making.

They were also screened to ensure that at least one member of the couple was a babyboomer.

Journal of Financial Services Research

To encourage participation, the couples were informed that a cash donation would be made to a charity of their choice once the completed questionnaires were received. In addition the couples were given a chance to win one of four prizes consisting of U. A packet which included a cover letter, two surveys, and two return envelopes was mailed to the couples. The instructions explicitly stated that each member of the couple was to work independently. Approximately three-quarters of those volunteering actually participated.

One hundred and sixty-eight completed questionnaires were received. In two cases, the spouse did not respond resulting in responses from 83 couples. The mean age for the wives was 35 years and that for the husbands was There were five parts to the questionnaire. The first section asked about ownership of financial services and the relative influence of the two spouses in financial decisions. Before doing the analysis, husbands' answers were recoded so that for all respondents--a high number indicated high husband influence and a low number indicated high wife influence.